Job Interview Tips: How to Make a Great Impression You have your job interview scheduled—congratulations! Now it’s time to prepare, and we’ve got you covered. In this article you’ll learn: How to practice your answers to interview questions Prepare your own questions for employers Make a great first impression What to bring to the interview Tips on good manners and body language How to win them over with your authenticity and positivity Practice strong answers In the days before your job interview, set aside time to do the following: Research the company so you can go into your interview with a solid understanding of the requirements of the job and how your background makes you a great fit.  Read company reviews  to learn more about the company culture and what others are saying about this employer.  Related:  The Complete Guide to Researching a Company Prepare your answer to the common question: “Tell me about yourself, and why are you interested in this role with our company?”. The idea is to quickly communicate who you are and what value you will bring to the company and the role.  Related:  Interview Question: “Tell Me About Yourself Re-read the job description. You may want to print it out and begin underlining specific skills the employer is looking for. Think about examples from your past and current work that align with these requirements. Prepare to be asked about times in the past when you used a specific skill and to tell stories with a clear  S ituation,  T ask,  A ction and  R esult. Writing out a few examples before the interview can help you respond with good quality answers.  Related:  How to Use the STAR Interview Response Technique Practise! Actually practising your answers out loud is an incredibly effective way to prepare. Say them to yourself or ask a friend to help run through questions and answers. Ask your friend for feedback in your answers. You’ll find you gain confidence as you get used to saying the words. Prepare smart questions Interviews are a two-way street. Employers expect you to ask questions: they want to know that you’re thinking seriously about what it would be like to work there. Here are some questions you may want to consider asking your interviewers: “Can you explain some of the day-to-day responsibilities for this job?” “How would you describe the characteristics of someone who would succeed in this role?” “If I were in this position, how would my performance be measured? How often?” “What departments does this team work with regularly? How do these departments typically collaborate? What does that process look like?” “What are the challenges you’re currently facing in your role?” Related:  Top 16 Interview Questions and Answers Think about first impressions Dress for the job you want. If you’re speaking to a recruiter before the interview, you can ask them about the dress code in the workplace and choose your outfit accordingly. If you don’t have someone to ask,  research the company  to learn what’s appropriate. Don’t forget the little things. Shine your shoes, make sure your nails are clean and tidy, and check your clothes for holes, stains, pet hair and loose threads. Brush your teeth and use floss. Plan your schedule so that you can arrive 10–15 minutes early. Map out your route to the interview location so you can be sure to arrive on time. Consider doing a trial run. If you’re taking public transportation, identify a backup plan if there are delays or closures. Pro-tip:  When you arrive early, use the extra minutes to observe the workplace dynamics. What to bring to the interview Set aside time before your interview to get the following items together. At least five copies of your printed resume on clean paper. While the hiring manager has likely seen your resume, they may not have read every line. Or you might be speaking with someone new. In either case, you might want to highlight specific accomplishments on your copy that you can discuss. A pen and a small notebook. Prepare to take notes, but not on your smartphone or any other electronic device. Write information down so that you can refer to these details in your follow-up thank you notes. Maintain eye contact as much as possible. A written version of the prepared questions for your interviewers. A single bag for all your materials. It’s easy to mistake nervous for disorganised, so keep all your documents in a single, multi-use messenger bag or portfolio. Make sure that it’s professional and appropriate to the corporate culture as well as your own style. Remember good manners and body language Non-verbal communication can be just as important as anything you say in the interview. Use confident, accessible body language. Smile frequently. Make eye contact when you’re speaking. Sit or stand tall with your shoulders back. Before the interview, take a deep breath and exhale slowly. This will help you manage any feelings of anxiety and will encourage greater self-confidence. Treat every single person you encounter with respect. This includes people on the road and in the parking lot, security personnel and front desk staff. Treat everyone you don’t know as though they’re the hiring manager. Even if they aren’t, your potential employer might ask for their feedback. Nail the handshake. During a job interview, the hiring manager (or person in seniority) should extend their hand first to initiate the handshake. Stand, look the person in the eye and smile. A good handshake should be firm but not crush the other person’s fingers. Send personalised thank you notes to each interviewer. You may want to ask for the business card of each person you speak with during the interview process so that you can follow up individually with a separate thank you email—if they don’t have a business card, you could ask for their email address and make a note of it. If you interviewed in the morning, send your follow-up emails the same day. If you are interviewed in the afternoon, the next morning is fine. Make certain that each email is distinct from the others, using the notes you took during the conversations.  Related:  Follow-up Email Examples for After the Interview Be authentic, concise and upbeat Respond truthfully to the questions you’re asked. Tie your answers back to your skills and accomplishments by providing examples of solutions and results you’ve achieved. If you cannot immediately think of an appropriate answer, say “Let me think of the best example to share,” pause as you collect your thoughts and then respond. Keep your answers short and focused, making sure that you actually answer the question you’ve been asked. Your time with each interviewer is limited so be mindful of rambling. Let your interviewer lead the conversation. Don’t speak negatively about current and former employers or colleagues. Companies want to hire problem solvers who overcome tough situations. If you’re feeling discouraged about your current job, focus on talking about what you’ve gained from that experience and what you want to do next.
Africa has a growing number of job boards, job search engines, and social media sites. It's much easier now to promote job openings to thousands of potential job recruits. We have put together a list of some of the best and inexpensive job sites so recruiters employers and can experiment with different ways to find new hires. Africa job sites Job boards are essential for posting, promoting, and filling new job openings. We have compiled some of the cheapest job websites from Africa to post all kinds of jobs. 1. sajobfinder.co.za Sajobfinder boasts a network of more than 3,000 recruiters across several sectors, including IT, HR, sales, and healthcare. Thousands of businesses use the site to promote new job posts and connect with talented job seekers. The site serves over 800,000 members across South Africa. 2. Ghanajobscareers.com Ghanajobscareers is a job board where recruiters can post jobs modeled loosely on Craigslist. Employers can post an unlimited number of vacancies to JobSpider's network. With millions of job seekers active on the site, employers can view their resumes online for free and locate the best candidates for their vacancies. 3. JobsBotswana.com JosBotswana is a leading job board serving job seekers in Botswana. HR departments and recruiters post jobs at low, low rates. Employers post an unlimited number of vacancies to the job board. There are thousands of job active job seekers on the site, and employers can view their resumes online and find the best candidates for their open job positions. Job seekers can post resumes and set up job alerts for free . 4.  Kenyajobscareers.com Kenyajobscareers caters to the job search needs of thousands of job seekers in Kenya. The website harnesses the power of syndication to streamline the recruitment process. Recruiters can create an unlimited number of open job postings, which can then shared with up to 20 different job boards. 5. Namibiajobscareers.com Located in Windhoek, Namibia, Namibiajobscareers serve the labor requirements of employers and recruiters in the whole of Namibia. In contrast with other job boards, this site's recruitment tools are many. There is an applicant tracking system to help with the recruitment process. recruiters can email applicants while on the site 6. Nigeriajobscareers.com Nigeriajobscareers was created to help increase the efficiency of the recruiting process. The website uses algorithmic matchmaking to identify great-fit candidates for a given role, matching candidates based on skills and potential instead of just their resumes. The company provides access to all of its features — posting jobs, sorting through a curated roster of candidates, and setting up interviews. 7. Ugandajobscareers.com Ugandajobscareers offers job postings to recruiters and employers, tiny businesses. The site also receives thousands of resumes from new job seekers each week, allowing hiring managers to pinpoint great candidates only using the filters available on the site's database.
  Interpersonal skills involve the ability to communicate and build relationships with others. Often called “people skills,” they tend to incorporate both your innate personality traits and how you’ve learned to handle certain social situations. Effective interpersonal skills can help you during the job interview process and positively impact your career advancement. What are interpersonal skills? Interpersonal skills are traits you rely on when you interact and communicate with others. They cover a variety of scenarios where communication and cooperation are essential. Some examples of interpersonal skills include: Active listening Teamwork Responsibility Dependability Leadership Motivation Flexibility Patience Empathy In a work environment, strong interpersonal skills are an asset that can help you navigate complexity, change, and day-to-day tasks. Why are interpersonal skills important? Strong interpersonal skills can help you during the job interview process as interviewers look for applicants who can work well with others. They will also help you succeed in almost any job by helping you understand other people and adjusting your approach to work together effectively. For example, while a software engineer may spend most of her time working on code independently, she may need to collaborate with other programmers to bring a product to market effectively. This is especially true as more companies implement collaborative, agile frameworks for getting work done. Employers will be looking for workers who can perform technical tasks with excellence and communicate well with colleagues. Interpersonal skills examples Unlike technical or “hard” skills, interpersonal skills are “soft” skills that are easily transferable across industries and positions. Employers value interpersonal skills because they contribute to positive work environments and help maintain an efficient workflow. Here is a list of interpersonal skills for you to identify interpersonal skills you may possess that are valuable to employers: Active listening Active listening means listening to others to gather information and engage with the speaker. Active listeners avoid distracting behaviors while in conversation with others. This can mean putting away or closing laptops or mobile devices while listening and asking and answering questions when prompted. Dependability Dependable people can be relied on in any given situation. This can include anything from being punctual to keeping promises. Employers highly value dependable workers and trust them with important tasks and duties. Empathy A worker’s “emotional intelligence” is how well they understand the needs and feelings of others. Employers may hire empathetic or compassionate employees to create a positive, high-functioning workplace. Leadership Leadership is an important interpersonal skill that involves effective decision-making. Effective leaders incorporate many other interpersonal skills, like empathy and patience to make decisions. Both managers and individual contributors can use leadership skills. In any role, employers value people who take ownership to reach common goals. Teamwork The ability to work together as a team is precious in every workplace. Teamwork involves many other interpersonal skills like communication, active listening, flexibility, and responsibility. Good “team players” are often given important tasks in the workplace and may be seen as good candidates for promotions. Jobs that require interpersonal skills Any job you apply for will require interpersonal skills of some kind. Some jobs that rely on strong interpersonal skills more than others include: Teachers Teachers need strong interpersonal skills to work collaboratively with each other, administrators, students, and parents. An empathic and patient teacher can help students learn and grow effectively in their education. Administrative Assistants Administrative assistants need to be highly dependable, among other interpersonal skills. Administrative assistants also contact customers or clients regularly, making interpersonal skills a necessary function of the job. Registered Nurses Comfort and care for patients is a key skill for nurses. Interpersonal skills of all kinds are integral for the industry, especially empathy and patience. Marketing Managers Marketing requires several technical and soft skills. Interpersonal communications skills are an important part of marketing and marketing management, as marketing professionals work collaboratively in developing marketing campaigns and with clients and sales teams. Customer Service Agents Customer service requires a high level of people skills. Those employed in customer service spend most of their work hours engaged with customers who may be frustrated, confused, or angry. Communication skills are necessary, especially patience, empathy, and active listening. How to improve interpersonal skills While interpersonal skills can seem easy to practice as you interact with others daily, making a deliberate plan can help you quickly improve. Consider the following ways to improve your interpersonal skills: Attend workshops or online classes.  There are several workshops, online classes, and videos on ways you can practice building interpersonal skills. While many are free, some are available at a cost. Seek out opportunities to build relationships.  If you work from home or do not otherwise have many opportunities to build interpersonal skills, you might consider joining a group. This could be related to your work like networking or industry-specific groups, or simply a group that shares a similar interest or hobby. Be thoughtful about ways your interactions could improve.  Take time to review the interactions you have and consider ways you could have interacted more effectively. This might be certain words you said, ways you reacted, or body language you used. Ask trusted friends or colleagues for constructive criticism.  It is helpful to get a third-party perspective about your skill level and specific ways you can improve. Ask friends or trusted colleagues to provide constructive criticism regarding your interpersonal skills. Observe other positive interpersonal interactions.  It can also be helpful to learn by seeing others use interpersonal skills. Observe positive interactions of those around you and apply those qualities you admire to your own relationships. Seek out mentorship.  Asking someone you trust, admire and respect to counsel you on improving interpersonal skills and advancing in your career overall can be an extremely effective way to learn. Setting goals for yourself can also provide structure, making your learning more efficient by understanding when and how you have made adequate improvements. How to highlight interpersonal skills when applying for jobs During the job application and interview phase, you can highlight your resume's interpersonal skills and cover letter. After you are successfully hired, you should continue to maintain your skills and develop new ones. Including interpersonal skills on a resume On your resume, include a few key interpersonal skills under the “skills” section. Generally, the best skills to put on a resume are that you are confident and verified by any of the references you list on your job application. Review the job posting to understand which of your skills are most relevant to the job you’re applying for and which you should prioritize on your resume. Your resume skills section may look like this: Technical skills:  POS Systems, Excel, HTML, Digital Phone Systems Additional skills:  Effective team player, highly communicative and cooperative, active listener, innovative researcher You can also provide examples of your interpersonal skills in the Experience section of your resume. Do this by including concrete examples of how you worked with others and the results you achieved. For example: “Collaborated with designers, copywriters, and strategists on a rebranding initiative that resulted in a 30% increase in website visits.” Including interpersonal skills on a cover letter For your cover letter, you may want to focus on one strong, relevant interpersonal skill. This can help the employer get a good idea about an area you see as one of your strengths. You may also want to briefly explain how that skill can benefit the employer and create a good work relationship. An example section highlighting your skills in a cover letter could look like the following: “With my previous employer, I was often called upon to help form collaborative teams. My managers pointed to my ability to listen to and understand my colleagues’ strengths to determine best how to assign effective roles.” Related:  How to Write a Cover Letter Interpersonal skills in a job interview and on the job Your interpersonal skills will be necessary both during the job interview and on the job. During your job interview, the hiring manager may be looking to see how well you listen actively, maintain eye contact and whether you are courteous and respectful. The job interview is also a good opportunity to show dependability. Arriving early for your interview, for example, shows you are serious about the interview and respect the interviewer’s time. Related:  Job Interview Tips: How to Make a Great Impression Once you successfully get a job, you will continue to rely on interpersonal skills. By demonstrating that you are dependable, taking the initiative to lead, and positively impacting your colleagues, you can develop a strong reputation as a collaborative teammate. Employers in every industry increasingly value interpersonal communication skills. Regardless of what type of career you are looking to enter, your ability to work well with your colleagues and employer may make a good impression and result in positive career growth.   Interpersonal skills involve the ability to communicate and build relationships with others. Often called “people skills,” they tend to incorporate both your innate personality traits and how you’ve learned to handle certain social situations. Effective interpersonal skills can help you during the job interview process and positively impact your career advancement. What are interpersonal skills? Interpersonal skills are traits you rely on when you interact and communicate with others. They cover a variety of scenarios where communication and cooperation are essential. Some examples of interpersonal skills include: Active listening Teamwork Responsibility Dependability Leadership Motivation Flexibility Patience Empathy In a work environment, strong interpersonal skills are an asset that can help you navigate complexity, change, and day-to-day tasks. Why are interpersonal skills important? Strong interpersonal skills can help you during the job interview process as interviewers look for applicants who can work well with others. They will also help you succeed in almost any job by helping you understand other people and adjusting your approach to work together effectively. For example, while a software engineer may spend most of her time working on code independently, she may need to collaborate with other programmers to bring a product to market effectively. This is especially true as more companies implement collaborative, agile frameworks for getting work done. Employers will be looking for workers who can perform technical tasks with excellence and communicate well with colleagues. Interpersonal skills examples Unlike technical or “hard” skills, interpersonal skills are “soft” skills that are easily transferable across industries and positions. Employers value interpersonal skills because they contribute to positive work environments and help maintain an efficient workflow. Here is a list of interpersonal skills for you to identify interpersonal skills you may possess that are valuable to employers: Active listening Active listening means listening to others to gather information and engage with the speaker. Active listeners avoid distracting behaviors while in conversation with others. This can mean putting away or closing laptops or mobile devices while listening and asking and answering questions when prompted. Dependability Dependable people can be relied on in any given situation. This can include anything from being punctual to keeping promises. Employers highly value dependable workers and trust them with important tasks and duties. Empathy A worker’s “emotional intelligence” is how well they understand the needs and feelings of others. Employers may hire empathetic or compassionate employees to create a positive, high-functioning workplace. Leadership Leadership is an important interpersonal skill that involves effective decision-making. Effective leaders incorporate many other interpersonal skills, like empathy and patience to make decisions. Both managers and individual contributors can use leadership skills. In any role, employers value people who take ownership to reach common goals. Teamwork The ability to work together as a team is precious in every workplace. Teamwork involves many other interpersonal skills like communication, active listening, flexibility, and responsibility. Good “team players” are often given important tasks in the workplace and may be seen as good candidates for promotions. Jobs that require interpersonal skills Any job you apply for will require interpersonal skills of some kind. Some jobs that rely on strong interpersonal skills more than others include: Teachers Teachers need strong interpersonal skills to work collaboratively with each other, administrators, students, and parents. An empathic and patient teacher can help students learn and grow effectively in their education. Administrative Assistants Administrative assistants need to be highly dependable, among other interpersonal skills. Administrative assistants also contact customers or clients regularly, making interpersonal skills a necessary function of the job. Registered Nurses Comfort and care for patients is a key skill for nurses. Interpersonal skills of all kinds are integral for the industry, especially empathy and patience. Marketing Managers Marketing requires several technical and soft skills. Interpersonal communications skills are an important part of marketing and marketing management, as marketing professionals work collaboratively in developing marketing campaigns and with clients and sales teams. Customer Service Agents Customer service requires a high level of people skills. Those employed in customer service spend most of their work hours engaged with customers who may be frustrated, confused, or angry. Communication skills are necessary, especially patience, empathy, and active listening. How to improve interpersonal skills While interpersonal skills can seem easy to practice as you interact with others daily, making a deliberate plan can help you quickly improve. Consider the following ways to improve your interpersonal skills: Attend workshops or online classes.  There are several workshops, online classes, and videos on ways you can practice building interpersonal skills. While many are free, some are available at a cost. Seek out opportunities to build relationships.  If you work from home or do not otherwise have many opportunities to build interpersonal skills, you might consider joining a group. This could be related to your work like networking or industry-specific groups, or simply a group that shares a similar interest or hobby. Be thoughtful about ways your interactions could improve.  Take time to review the interactions you have and consider ways you could have interacted more effectively. This might be certain words you said, ways you reacted, or body language you used. Ask trusted friends or colleagues for constructive criticism.  It is helpful to get a third-party perspective about your skill level and specific ways you can improve. Ask friends or trusted colleagues to provide constructive criticism regarding your interpersonal skills. Observe other positive interpersonal interactions.  It can also be helpful to learn by seeing others use interpersonal skills. Observe positive interactions of those around you and apply those qualities you admire to your own relationships. Seek out mentorship.  Asking someone you trust, admire and respect to counsel you on improving interpersonal skills and advancing in your career overall can be an extremely effective way to learn. Setting goals for yourself can also provide structure, making your learning more efficient by understanding when and how you have made adequate improvements. How to highlight interpersonal skills when applying for jobs During the job application and interview phase, you can highlight your resume's interpersonal skills and cover letter. After you are successfully hired, you should continue to maintain your skills and develop new ones. Including interpersonal skills on a resume On your resume, include a few key interpersonal skills under the “skills” section. Generally, the best skills to put on a resume are that you are confident and verified by any of the references you list on your job application. Review the job posting to understand which of your skills are most relevant to the job you’re applying for and which you should prioritize on your resume. Your resume skills section may look like this: Technical skills:  POS Systems, Excel, HTML, Digital Phone Systems Additional skills:  Effective team player, highly communicative and cooperative, active listener, innovative researcher You can also provide examples of your interpersonal skills in the Experience section of your resume. Do this by including concrete examples of how you worked with others and the results you achieved. For example: “Collaborated with designers, copywriters, and strategists on a rebranding initiative that resulted in a 30% increase in website visits.” Including interpersonal skills on a cover letter For your cover letter, you may want to focus on one strong, relevant interpersonal skill. This can help the employer get a good idea about an area you see as one of your strengths. You may also want to briefly explain how that skill can benefit the employer and create a good work relationship. An example section highlighting your skills in a cover letter could look like the following: “With my previous employer, I was often called upon to help form collaborative teams. My managers pointed to my ability to listen to and understand my colleagues’ strengths to determine best how to assign effective roles.” Related:  How to Write a Cover Letter Interpersonal skills in a job interview and on the job Your interpersonal skills will be necessary both during the job interview and on the job. During your job interview, the hiring manager may be looking to see how well you listen actively, maintain eye contact and whether you are courteous and respectful. The job interview is also a good opportunity to show dependability. Arriving early for your interview, for example, shows you are serious about the interview and respect the interviewer’s time. Related:  Job Interview Tips: How to Make a Great Impression Once you successfully get a job, you will continue to rely on interpersonal skills. By demonstrating that you are dependable, taking the initiative to lead, and positively impacting your colleagues, you can develop a strong reputation as a collaborative teammate. Employers in every industry increasingly value interpersonal communication skills. Regardless of what type of career you are looking to enter, your ability to work well with your colleagues and employer may make a good impression and result in positive career growth.
  Should You Include a Cover Letter? Cover letters are a time-consuming part of the job application process, especially when done well. You might be wondering: Should I include a cover letter in my job application? The answer: Many career experts agree that sending a cover letter is almost always the best decision. In the world of automated applications,  a well-written cover letter  gives you the opportunity to show a personal side and demonstrate why hiring you is a smart move. It’s a way to stand out among hundreds of other candidates and it shows your willingness to personalise your application for each job. Here are some guidelines to take into account: Emphasise and highlight important keywords Ideally, job applicants should tailor their cover letters to the individual hiring manager and position, incorporating specific keywords that align to the job posting. Don’t just repeat what’s in your resume. Instead, give specific examples that match the requirements of the job and illustrate why you are a perfect fit for the role. Cover letters should be free of typos and incorrect information — hiring managers often rely on these details to evaluate your ability to follow directions or your attention to detail. Share your unique story but connect it to the role As you are tailoring your cover letter, you want to share job experiences or personal stories as they relate to the job you’re applying for. You can be creative in how you do this but always bring it back to the requirements of the role. In  How to Write a Cover Letter , you’ll see examples of how to write a creative cover letter or a more conventional one — both are strong options if done well. Have a conversation with smaller companies Roles at smaller companies can have a big impact on the organisation’s culture, so hiring managers will sometimes use cover letters to determine how well a candidate will fit in with the team. This means your cover letter can have an especially meaningful effect by allowing you to introduce yourself, reference why you’d be a good fit for the role and the mission of the company, and make a personal connection. Address gaps and concerns Your cover letter is also the perfect place to proactively address issues or potential concerns. It can explain irregularities in your employment, short-term positions and even incomplete degrees. Don’t leave potential employers to guess or assume the worst. Instead, take this opportunity to tell your story on your own terms and in the most positive way possible. Caveat: when not to send a cover letter There are instances when it is not appropriate to send a cover letter — specifically when an employer does not request one and/or the job application software does not allow for additional document attachments. If this is the case, follow the employer’s instructions. And, make sure that your resume includes plenty of keywords that align to the job description. If the online application offers the cover letter as “optional,” take this option and increase your chances of moving forward in the process. Here are additional resources to help you complete your job applications successfully: Start with the basics on writing your cover letter : follow instructions, tell the story of your career in your own voice and capture the attention of the hiring manager. After you’ve written your cover letter, you’ll want to  edit and proofread  to ensure you aren’t making mistakes that might cost you the job. Finally, once you’ve finished writing, you should spend time proofreading your resume to make sure all of the information in both documents is consistent throughout and relevant to the job.
Resume Format Guide (with Examples) 12 September 2019 A great resume can capture the attention of a recruiter or hiring manager and help you stand out from other applicants. Formatting your resume is an important step in creating a professional, readable resume. There are several different ways to format your resume. One of the first decisions you should make is the type of resume you will write: chronological, functional, or combination. Each of these resume types is beneficial for different people who have various backgrounds and objectives. When making specific formatting decisions like margin size or font style, your goal is to deliver a document that allows employers to quickly see why you’re a good fit for the job. In this guide, we will discuss the best ways to format your resume for your career objectives. While you might be formatting your existing resume for new job applications, you can also make certain formatting decisions before writing. This allows you to construct a resume within the guidelines of proper formatting. For example, setting one-inch margins provides a structure, so you will know how long your resume is when formatting is applied. From there, you can adjust the font size and style as needed. Let’s begin by looking at the three main types of resumes and which would work best for you. Types of resume formats There are three popular resume formats: chronological, functional, and combination. Chronological resume A chronological resume lists your work experience in reverse-chronological order, starting with your most recent position at the top. This is the most traditional resume format, and for years has remained the most common. A chronological resume format usually includes the following information in this order: Contact information Objective or summary statement Professional experience Relevant skills Education Additional information (i.e., volunteer work and special interests—optional) A chronological resume is a good choice for anyone whose employment history shows a consistent, advancing career path. For example, you might select a chronological resume format if you’ve spent several years in the same industry and each role you’ve held was more senior than the last. It’s also often used by people applying to a position in the same or similar field to most of their work experience. However, if you have multiple gaps in your employment history, you’re looking to change careers, or your work experience is heavily varied, you may want to consider a functional or combination resume. Functional resume Functional resumes focus more on relevant skills than work history. While the chronological format highlights work experience with detailed summaries of the achievements within each position, the functional format focuses on the applicant’s skill set. A functional resume format usually includes the following information in this order: Contact information Objective or summary statement Summary of relevant skills Work experience Education Additional information (i.e., volunteer work and special interests) A functional resume is best if you have multiple gaps in employment, are shifting careers with little to no experience in the industry in which you’re applying, or if you’re re-entering the workforce after a lengthy break. In some cases, a functional resume might be too limiting. If you have some experience and few or no gaps in your employment history, a combination resume might be the right choice. Combination resume A combination resume is a blend of the chronological and functional resume types. This resume format allows you to emphasize both your work experience and relevant skills. Because your skills and employment history will consume most of your resume space, you may need to eliminate optional sections such as volunteer work or special interests. A combination resume format usually includes the following information in this order: Contact information Objective or summary statement Work experience Summary of most relevant skills Education The combination resume is a more flexible format, so you should list either your skills or your work experience first, depending on which you consider more important for the role. For example, if you have many unique skills that are especially valuable to the industry you’re applying to work in, you might consider listing them above your work experience. It can also be helpful to look for clues in the job posting to understand what is most important for the employer in an ideal candidate. How to format a resume The goal of formatting your resume is to create a professional-looking, easy-to-read document. Employers have only a short time to look through your resume, so your formatting decisions should make information clear and easy to find. If you are formatting an existing resume, you might need to adjust certain words or phrases to ensure it is still easy to read after you’ve applied the formatting changes. If you are formatting a resume before you write it, pay attention to how the information looks on the page and adjust as needed. Here are the key steps to formatting a resume: Apply appropriate margins Select a professional, readable font Make your font size 10–12 points Feature section headers Use bullet points Ask for feedback Let’s look at each of these components in detail. Consider how you might apply each of these when drafting or updating your resume. 1. Apply appropriate margins Setting proper margins for your document ensures the information fits within a highly readable space on the page. Standard margins for resumes and other professional documents like  cover letters  or  resignation letters  are one inch on all sides. If you have a fairly short resume with a lot of blank space, you can use wider margins to create a less distracting document that appears more full. If you decide to adjust your margins, you should keep them below 1.5 inches. You should also make sure to left-align your resume, so it is easy to read. If appropriate and readable, you might decide to center-align certain section headers to stylize your resume. 2. Select a professional, readable font When deciding what font to use for your resume, keep in mind that it should be clear and easy to read. Ensuring employers don’t have to work to understand words on your resume is the most important factor when choosing a font. It is also helpful if your resume is sent through an applicant tracking system (ATS). Many employers use an ATS, which doesn’t always read and interpret intricate fonts well. You should also avoid “light” or “thin” fonts, which can sometimes be difficult to read on a screen or paper. There are two main categories of fonts—serif and sans serif. Serif fonts have tails, while sans serif fonts do not. Sans serif fonts (or fonts without tails) are generally good fonts for resumes because they have clean lines that are easy to read. However, there are fonts like Georgia that are still widely accepted among employers as simple and professional. Here are several examples of the best resume fonts: Arial Avenir Calibri Cambria Constantia Corbel Franklin Gothic Garamond Georgia Helvetica Times New Roman 3. Make your font size 10–12 points Another factor in making your words highly readable is setting an appropriate font size. Generally, you should stay between 10 and 12 points. If you are trying to reduce white space, select a 12-point font. Anything more might appear unprofessional. If you have a lot of information on your page, start with a 10 point font and increase it if you have space. If your resume is still more than one page with a 10 point font, avoid reducing your font further and see if there is an opportunity to edit your ideas instead. You can do this by removing irrelevant or extraneous information, combining ideas, or making your ideas briefer with shorter sentences and fewer filler words. For example, here’s a resume sentence that can be shortened: “Performed inventory audits every month and discovered issues with over-ordering—executed an organization solution across all teams which resulted in a 10% increase in revenue over the next two quarters.” Make your ideas concise and remove filler words to include only the core value of your statement: “Performed regular inventory audits, identifying and solving the over-ordering problem to achieve 10% revenue increase.” Here are a few other ways you can use to make a shorter resume: Consider removing filler words such as “like,” “with,” “a,” “and” and “that.” Instead of listing each function of every job you’ve held, pick 2-3 key impacts you made in those roles. If you have two similar points, consider combining them into one brief statement. 4. Feature section headers Bolding, underlining, or increasing the font size for section headers can help employers quickly find the information they are looking for. Be careful when formatting section headers—they should be differentiated from the section body in a clean, professional way. You can stylize your headers in a few different ways: Use a “bold” font on your section headers. Increase the size of your section header fonts to 12, 14, or 16 points Underline your section headers You can also apply these styles to your name and contact information at the top of your resume. This information should be the first thing employers see, and it should be easy to find and read. 5. Use bullet points where appropriate Using bullet points in your experience, skills, and/or education sections allows employers to easily consume the most relevant pieces of information from your resume. Bullet points should be used to list your achievements. Avoid using one or two bullet points—if you have less than three pieces of information, list them without bullets in sentence form or use other punctuation to separate different ideas. For example, under a position you’ve held in the experience section, you would use bullets to communicate how you were successful in that role: Consistently operated overhead cranes, hoists, power tools, and other project equipment safely. Anticipated needs of 11 on-site workers and delivered parts to 23 field technicians Completed weekly service reports, time cards, and other related project equipment paperwork In the education section, you might not have three or more ideas to share so that it might look something like this without bullet points: The University of Queensland February 2010–December 2014 Bachelor of Arts, English 6. Ask for feedback After you’ve finished writing and formatting your resume, ask trusted friends or colleagues to review it. It can be helpful to have a third-party perspective provide their view and feedback. While they should look for grammar and spelling mistakes you might have missed, they should also pay attention to your formatting. Ask them to look for readability, consistency, and a professional look and feel. Resume format examples When drafting or updating your resume, consider reviewing resume samples in your industry and job title. While they are not to be used as exact templates, they can give you ideas for best presenting your qualifications to employers. Here are examples of what a resume might look like following each of the three formats: Chronological Nathan Stevenson 1234 Brunswick Street Fitzroy, VIC 3065 nstevenson@email.com Objective I am a passionate and dedicated communications professional seeking a position with a not-for-profit organisation where I can apply my public relations skills and my passion for philanthropy. Experience Public Relations Manager The Volunteer Foundation, 2017–Present Plan and direct public relations programs to create a positive public image for The Volunteer Foundation. Manage PR staff and act as a mentor to junior public relations personnel. Public Relations Specialist The Volunteer Foundation, 2015–2017 Worked alongside PR team to ensure all fundraising efforts, local events and other special projects met the organisation’s brand guidelines and upheld a favourable public image. Communications Coordinator ABC Company 2013–2015 Help increase brand visibility through various marketing efforts, including social media campaigns and digital advertising efforts. Helped conceptualise and distribute printed marketing materials. Professional Skills Public relations management Corporate communications Team leadership Interpersonal communications Process streamlining Education University of South Australia, 2008–2012 Bachelor of Arts in Journalism Volunteer Work Australian Red Cross Disaster Volunteer, Public Affairs 2016–Present Functional Janice Johnson 1234 Rokeby Street Subiaco, WA 6008 jjohnson@email.com Objective I am a hardworking and driven sales professional with more than ten years of experience seeking an account management position in the healthcare industry. Areas of Expertise Medical Device, Supplies & Pharmaceutical Sales I have a wealth of experience in selling to healthcare organisations ranging from large hospitals to small private practices. In previous roles, I’ve managed prospecting efforts, relationship development, new client on-boarding and account management within both the medical device and pharmaceutical product verticals. Relationship Management I am skilled in developing new relationships with prospects and nurturing relationships with existing clients. In previous roles, I used a combination of proficiency in conflict resolution and my ability to build rapport to increase client retention rates as high as 300% year over year. Sales Team Leadership I have managed a sales team of more than ten sales associates, coached and mentored junior sales representatives and regularly lead teams to exceed monthly, quarterly and yearly quotas. Work Experience Regional Sales Manager ABC Medical Supplies, Inc., 2012–2017 Managed a team of sales associates. Trained and mentored new sales representatives. Oversaw regional account list averaging more than 90 existing clients and 40 prospects. Account Manager XYZ Pharma Co., 2008–2012 Managed a lengthy account list including private practices and mid-sized clinics. Worked to maximise account growth through regular on-site visits, monthly check-ins and quarterly updates. Junior Sales Associate XYZ Pharma Co., 2006–2008 Increase awareness of XYZ Pharma Co. products to small private practices through on-site education. Share information about new medications to help establish relationships with new prospects. Education University of Newcastle, 2002–2006 Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Certifications Continuing Education Program (CEP) Combination Julie Pak 555 Elizabeth Street Sydney, NSW 2000 jpak@email.com Professional Experience Creative Director ABC Company, 2015–Present Manage a team of twelve creatives, including designers and copywriters. Oversee all in-house creative projects and ensure all deliverables meet brand guidelines. Senior Graphic Designer ABC Company, 2013–2015 Design creative for all digital properties. Spearheaded website redesign. Developed in-house brand style guide currently used by entire creative department. Graphic Designer XYZ Creative Agency, 2010–2013 Develop visual concepts for web and print design, including websites, mobile sites, digital ads, business cards and trade show collateral. Related Skills Team Management Coordinate team of creative resources, lead team meetings and offer mentoring as needed. Project Management Manage all aspects of creative projects, including timeline, resource coordination, internal communication and sharing progress reports with outside stakeholders. Branding Create logos, design brand marks, offer brand colour recommendations and created a style guide to ensure cohesiveness across all assets. Additional Skills Illustration, Typography, Client Communication, Time Management, Mobile Design, Adobe Creative Suite Education University of Sydney, 2005–2009 Bachelor of Art in Graphic Design